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1502 Moctezuma II ( aka Montezuma ) (1466-1520) assumes Aztec throne


1517 Spanish expedition under Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba (1475-1526) lands on Yucatan coast


1519 Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes (1485-1547) founds Veracruz


1519 Cortes enters Tenochtitlan and captures Moctezuma II ( aka Montezuma )


1520 Moctezuma II ( aka Montezuma ) is killed


1528 Juan de Zumarraga (1468-1548) arrives as bishop of Mexico City and begins native conversion to Catholicism


1718 Franciscan missionaries settle in Texas which is of New Spain


1718 Mission San Antonio de Valero was established which later became famous as the Alamo


1803 Napoleon took Louisiana back from New Spain but sold it to the United States


1810 - Overthrow of the king of Spain by Napoleon


1810 September 16 Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1753-1811) preaches his Grito de Dolores, sparking rebellion and the War of Independence


1811 Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla is captured and executed


1821 Spain recognizes Mexican independence with the Treaty of Cordoba


1822 General Augustin de Iturbide assumes control as Emperor of Mexico


1823 General Santa Anna deposes Iturbide, the monarchy fails, and a new constitution creates a federal republic


1829 President Vicente Guerrero abolishes slavery


1829 A Spanish attempt at re-conquest is halted by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (1794-1876)


Texas declares its independence


1836 February 23 to March 6 - A band of 189 Texas volunteers defied a Mexican army of thousands for 13 days of siege at the Alamo


1836 April Battle of San Jacinto - General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna is captured by Sam Houston


1846-1848 US-Mexican War


1848 The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo reduces Mexico's territory by half, ceding present-day Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, and part of Colorado to the U.S.


1853 Santa Anna agrees to the Gadsden Purchase, ceding a further 48,000 square km (30,000 square mi) to the United States


1863 the French occupy Mexico City and Napoleon III of France appoints Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria (1832-1867) as Emperor of Mexico


1864 Maximilian is executed


1910-1920 Mexican Revolution -- Madero, Huerta, Carranza, Villa and Zapata.

South America - Mesoamerican Civilisations
History Timeline & Facts

The History, Facts & Timeline


The information regarding the ancient Mesoamerican Empires seeks to provide an overview of the great Mesoamerican civilizations - a who's who of these great nations and Empires.

5000-1200 BC


The ancient Ancestors of the people of South America were believed to have been nomadic Asian hunter-gatherers who crossed over the frozen Bering Strait and into North America. From there they traveled to the lands of South America and were the descendents of the great Mesoamerican civilizations and established corn cultivation, pottery and the use of stone tools

The Olmec - 1200 BC- 300 AD

The Olmec were the first true civilization of South America and were the ancestors of the later cultures


The Maya Empire & Civilization - 300 - 1500's


The Mayans empire covered Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador. The Maya developed astronomy and hieroglyphic writing


The Toltec Empire & Civilization - 900's - 1100's

The Toltecs ruled Mexico and Guatemala from the 10th to the 12th century


The Aztec Empire & Civilization - 1100'S- 1500'S

The Aztec rose to power in Mexico during the 12th and 13th centuries and remained in control until the arrival of the Spaniards in the 16th Century


The Spanish Conquistadors - 1535


The later civilizations of South America abruptly ended in 1535 when the Spanish conquistadors seized control